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Post  msistarted on Fri Oct 22, 2010 11:33 pm

This is a sandbox page for the Mcgill AAC project; This is where you can store information, drafts etc, until you are ready to move it into the article proper

* 1 Team
* 2 Unaided AAC
* 3 Aided AAC
o 3.1 Low Tech
o 3.2 High Tech
* 4 Symbols
* 5 Organization of symbols
* 6 Access
* 7 Rate enhancement strategies
* 8 Specific groups of AAC users
o 8.1 Cerebral Palsy
o 8.2 Intellectual impairment
* 9 Autism
o 9.1 Developmental dyspraxia
o 9.2 Visual impairment
o 9.3 Aphasia
o 9.4 Brain Stem stroke
o 9.5 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
o 9.6 Other Degenerative conditions
o 9.7 Parkinson's Disease
* 10 Effect on speech development
* 11 Users involvement/experience
* 12 Language learning in AAC
* 13 Literacy
* 14 History of AAC
* 15 Multicultural aspects
* 16 References
* 17 Outcomes

[edit] Team
[edit] Unaided AAC
[edit] Aided AAC
[edit] Low Tech
[edit] High Tech
[edit] Symbols
[edit] Organization of symbols

Within an AAC system, symbols must be organized in such a way as to promote and facilitate efficient and effective communication. This is especially important when the individual has an extensive number of symbols in his or her AAC system [Beukelman reference]. Vocabulary organization refers to the way pictures, words, phrases, and sentences are displayed. (Blackstone, 1993). There are two main categories of organizational strategies: grid displays and visual scene displays. Grid displays are made up of individual symbols, words, phrases, or pictures. There are three types of grid displays: semantic-syntactic, taxonomic, and activity [Beukelman reference]. Semantic-syntactic grid displays have vocabulary items organized in terms of spoken word order or usage (Brandenberg & Vanderheiden, 1988). A common example of this type of grid display is a Fitzgerald key. The Fitzgerald key organizes symbols on a display from left to right into categories labelled who, doing, what, where, and when, with frequently used phrases and letters clustered along the top or bottom of the display.(McDonald & Schultz, 1973). Overall, semantic-syntactic displays have been cited as facilitating language and literacy skills in children.

Taxonomic grid displays group symbols according to categories such as people, places, feelings, foods, drinks, and action words [Beukelman reference]. The third and final type of grid display, the activity display, involves organizing vocabulary items according to specific situations. These can include items that are related to an activity (i.e. going grocery shopping) or routines within that activity (i.e. making a list, going to the grocery store, picking up items, paying for items at the cash register) (Drager, Light, Speltz, Fallon, & Jeffries, 2003). As such, each display contains symbols for the people, places, objects, feelings, actions, and other relevant vocabulary items for an activity or routine. These vocabulary items are then usually grouped in terms of semantic categories (i.e. all of the actions are in one area).

Visual scene displays are depictions of events, people, objects, and related actions that are parts of a particular scene [Beukelman reference]. These types of displays resemble activity displays, as they contain vocabulary that is associated with specific activities or routines. For example, a picture may be taken of a child’s room and included in the AAC system. Objects and events within the photograph can then be used as symbols for communication. The concept of play could be accessed by selecting the toy box, whereas selecting an individual toy could generate the name of the toy (e.g. blocks) (Drager, Light, Speltz, Fallon, & Jeffries, 2003). Research suggests that visual scene displays are easier for young, typically developing children to learn and use, when compared to taxonomic and activity grid displays (Drager, Light, Carlson, 2004; Fallon et al., 2003).

Symbols can also be arranged in a hybrid display, in which both the grid and visual scene dispays appear together [Beukelman reference].

Vocabulary can also be organized based on the frequency of the words and messages used by the individual. This frequency-based organization divides vocabulary into two main types: core and fringe. Core vocabulary refers to words and messages that occur frequently and show a high degree of commonality across users [Beukelman reference]. This type of vocabulary carries little information, but provides a framework for language(Yorkston et al., 1988). Conversely, fringe vocabulary refers to words and messages that are specific to a particular individual. These might include names of family members, friends or other significant people, locations, activities, and preferred expressions [Beukelman reference]. This type of vocabulary is large, constantly updated with new words, consists almost exclusively of content words (i.e., nouns, verbs, and adjectives), and has a low degree of commonality across users (Blackstone, 1988). Research has shown that both children and adults use a small core vocabulary and a large fringe vocabulary (Beukelman, Jones, & Rowan, 1989; Beukelman et al., 1984; Marvin, Beukelman, & Bilyeu,1994).

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