Transliteration

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Transliteration

Post  msistarted on Mon Nov 22, 2010 3:43 am

Transliteration is the practice of converting a text from one writing system into another in a systematic way.
Contents
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* 1 Definitions
* 2 Uses
* 3 Difference from transcription
* 4 Partial transliteration
* 5 See also
* 6 Adopted
* 7 See also
* 8 External links
* 9 Documentation
* 10 References

[edit] Definitions

From an information-theoretical point of view, transliteration is a mapping from one system of writing into another, word by word, or ideally letter by letter. Transliteration attempts to use a one-to-one correspondence and be exact, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words.

Transliteration is opposed to transcription, which specifically maps the sounds of one language to the best matching script of another language. Still, most systems of transliteration map the letters of the source script to letters pronounced similarly in the goal script, for some specific pair of source and goal language. If the relations between letters and sounds are similar in both languages, a transliteration may be (almost) the same as a transcription. In practice, there are also some mixed transliteration/transcription systems that transliterate a part of the original script and transcribe the rest.

In a broader sense, the word transliteration may be used to include both transliteration in the narrow sense and transcription. Anglicizing is a transcription method. Romanization encompasses several transliteration and transcription methods.

Among the interpreters between a spoken language and a signed language, like between English and American Sign Language (ASL), the word transliteration means transforming the spoken form of the source language into the signed form of the same by use of the manual alphabet, which is used whenever a word does not have a signed equivalent.[citation needed]
[edit] Uses

Transliterations are used in situations where the original script is not available to write down a word in that script, while still high precision is required. For example, traditional or cheap typesetting with a small character set; editions of old texts in scripts not used any more (such as Linear B); some library catalogues.[1]

For example, the Greek language is written in the 24-letter Greek alphabet, which overlaps with, but differs from, the 26-letter version of the Roman alphabet in which English is written. Etymologies in English dictionaries often identify Greek words as ancestors of words used in English. Consequently, most such dictionaries transliterate the Greek words into Roman letters.

Transliteration should be distinguished from transcription, which is a rendition of a word in a given script, based on the word's sound rather than as a process of converting of one script into another.
[edit] Difference from transcription

In Modern Greek usage (and since the Roman Imperial period), the letters <η> <ι> <υ> and the letter combinations <ει> <oι> <υι> may be pronounced [i]. When so pronounced, a modern transcription renders them all as <i>, but a transliteration still distinguishes them, for example by transliterating to <ē> <i> <y> and <ei> <oi> <yi>. (As the original Greek pronunciation of <η> is believed to have been [ɛː], the following example uses the character appropriate for an ancient Greek transliteration or transcription <ē>, an <e> with a macron.) On the other hand, <ευ> is sometimes pronounced [ev] and sometimes [ef], depending on the following sound. A transcription distinguishes them, but this is no requirement for a transliteration.
Greek word Transliteration Transcription
Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Hellēnikē Dēmokratia Helliniki Dhimokratia
Ελευθερία Eleutheria Eleftheria
Ευαγγέλιο Euaggelio Evangelio
των υιών tōn uiōn ton ion
[edit] Partial transliteration

There is also another type of transliteration that is not full, but partial or quasi. A source word can be transliterated by first identifying all the applicable prefix and suffix segments based on the letters in the source word. All of these segments, in combination constitute a list of potential partial transliterations. So a partial transliteration can include only prefix or only suffix segments. A partial transliteration will also include some unmapped letters of the source word, namely those letters between the end of the prefix and the beginning of the suffix. The partial transliteration can be “filled in” by applying additional segment maps. Applying the segment maps can produce additional transliterations if more than one segment mapping applies to a particular combination of characters in the source word.[1]

Some examples or "partial transliterations" are words like "bishop" from the Greek word "episkopoi" and the word "deacon" which is partially transliterated from the Greek word "diakonos".
[edit] See also

* Ancient Near East
o Transliterating cuneiform languages
o Transliteration of ancient Egyptian (see also Egyptian hieroglyphs)
o hieroglyphic Luwian
* Armenian language
* Avestan
* Brahmic family
o Devanagari: see Devanagari transliteration
o Pali
o Tocharian
o Malayalam: see Romanization of Malayalam
* Chinese language
o transliteration into Chinese characters
o romanization of Chinese
o Cyrillization of Chinese
* Greek language
o Transliteration of Greek to the Latin Alphabet
o Greek alphabet
o List of Greek words with English derivatives
o Linear B
o Greeklish
* Japanese language
o Romanization of Japanese
o Cyrillization of Japanese
* Korean language
o McCune-Reischauer
o Revised Romanization of Korean
* Persian language
o Persian alphabet
+ Cyrillic alphabet
+ Romanization of Persian
+ Persian chat alphabet
* Semitic languages
o Ugaritic alphabet
o Hebrew alphabet
+ Romanization of Hebrew
o Arabic alphabet
+ Romanization of Arabic
+ Arabic Chat Alphabet
* Slavic languages written in the Cyrillic or Glagolitic alphabets
o Romanization of Belarusian
o Romanization of Bulgarian
o Romanization of Russian
o Romanization of Macedonian
o Romanization of Serbian
o Romanization of Ukrainian
o Volapuk encoding
* Thai language
o Royal Thai General System of Transcription
o ‎ISO 11940

[edit] Adopted

* Buckwalter transliteration
* Devanagari transliteration
* Hans Wehr transliteration
* International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration
* Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic
* Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian
* Transliterations of Manchu
* Wylie transliteration

[edit] See also

* List of ISO transliterations
* Phonemic orthography
* Phonetic transcription
* Romanization
* Transcription (linguistics)
* substitution cipher

[edit] External links
Look up transliteration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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* Translitor.net Online Service for Transliteration of Cyrillic Scripts
* Online Tool for Transliteration of Asian Scripts
* CDACmumbai.in for English to Indian Language Transliteration
* Google.com, indic
* Google.com, Arabic
* Malerkotla.co.in, for Hindi to Urdu Transliteration
* malerkotla.co.in, for Urdu to Hindi Transliteration
* OpenOffice.org, for Indic transliteration in OpenOffice
* Transliterate.com, for Greek and Hebrew transliteration
* Latkey.com, Online transliteration web service
* Transliterations.info, Online transliteration service
* DMOZ.org, Transliteration at DMOZ directory.
* Lingua-systems.com, Lingua::Translit, Perl module and online service covering a variety of writing systems
* OK-Board.com, Multilingual transliteration service. 44 languages.
* Sourceforge.net, AzConvert, Open source program for transliterating Latin and Arabic scripts of Azerbaijani language developed using Qt
* VIKKU.info, Basic Indian Language Transliteration script for programmers and users
* Transliteration Tool, Online Transliteration
* Transliteration and Search, Transliterate and Search in all major non-Latin scripts.
* Indian Language Transliterator for Mozilla Thunderbird, This Add-on for Mozilla Thunderbird enables Thunderbird users to compose and send messages in 10 Regional Indian Languages, using their regular QWERTY keyboard.The languages supported by this add-on are Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Kannada, Oriya, Malayalam, Marathi, Sanskrit, Tamil and Telugu.

[edit] Documentation

* Unicode Transliteration Guidelines
* ICU User Guide: Transforms International Components for Unicode transliteration services
* Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts - Collection of Transliteration Tables for many Non-Roman Scripts maintained by Thomas T. Pedersen.
* United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) - working group on Romanization Systems.
* Library of Congress: Romanization
* Transliteration history - history of the transliteration of Slavic languages into Latin alphabets.
* Transliteration of Indic Scripts - How to use ISO 15919
* Hebrew to Arabic Transliteration
* Aramaic to Arabic Transliteration

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